Surah Kawthar is one of the shortest chapters in the Holy Qur’an, yet it is one of the richest ones too. It carries a fountain of knowledge for those who seek to extract its deeper meaning and wisdom. The interpreters of the Qur’an in the different schools of thought in Islam have intentionally presented a multitude of opinions regarding the identity of Kawthar to distance this virtue from its true owner, the Lady of Light (peace be upon her). The general context of this Surah conveys the meaning of Kawthar to refer to abundance in progeny and posterity. We find a wide array of ideas and key points in these regards presented in this Surah and they are all derived from one spring. It all points to the meaning that Kawthar refers to the "abundant good" which has no limit, as mentioned in the first verse: "We have given you Kawthar." (108:1)
This profound Surah which had been gifted to the Holy Prophet ends with the verse, "Surely your enemy is the one who shall be without posterity." (108:3) It is important to realize that the introductory and concluding verses of this Surah are related to each other and that this last verse reveals the identity of al-Kawthar, which has been gifted to the Prophet. Mir Pooya explains in his Qur’anic commentary that when the Holy Prophet's son, born to Khadija al-Kubra (peace be upon her), passed away, Amr ibn Aas and Hakam ibn Aas taunted the Holy Prophet by calling him Abtar (tail-less), one whose progeny has been cut off. This Surah was revealed to give glad tidings to the Holy Prophet that abundance of unbounded grace, of wisdom and knowledge, of mercy and goodness, of spiritual power and insight – in the highest of degrees – and of progeny has been given to him. Mir Pooya also says that this chapter guarantees abundance in every type of growth and profit to the Holy Prophet. The reality of this "abundance" cannot be encompassed or fathomed nor can it be given its most due right. It is a sincere grant from Allah to His beloved and chosen one, Prophet Muhammad. This should not be a surprise to us because, after all, Allah had previously stated in (93:5), "And soon will your Lord give you so that you shall be well pleased."
It is important to make a distinction here between the words of a creation and that of the Almighty Creator. When a creature says that "I will give" it is not the same as when the Creator says "I will give." The divine bestowal is much greater than our minds can encompass! So when Allah announces to His beloved Prophet that He will give him such that he will be pleased, then surely we can expect that divine grant to be something that is not materialistic or temporal or related to the mundane world. It is something that exceeds the boundaries of this life and existence! Upon hearing this verse, we as Muslims should anticipate and follow the pure autobiography of the Prophet to discover what that great grant which Muhammad received from Allah is. We can imagine the Prophet himself waiting anxiously to receive this divine gift which will make him ever pleased with his Lord. The answer to this question is answered in Surah Kawthar when Allah announces to the Prophet in front of everyone that "We have given you Kawthar." (108:1)